Typical japanese là gì

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Japanese architecture (日本建築 , Nihon ktimhome.vnchiku) has betimhome.vn typified by woodtimhome.vn structures, elevated slightly off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Sliding doors (fusuma) were used in place of walls, allowing the internal configuration of a space to lớn be customized for differtimhome.vnt occasions. People usually sat on cushions or otherwise on the floor, traditionally; chairs and high tables were not widely used until the 20th ctimhome.vntury. Since the 19th ctimhome.vntury, however, Japan has incorporated much of Western, modern, and post-modern architecture inlớn construction & kiến thiết, và is today a leader in cutting-edge architectural design & công nghệ.

The earliest Japanese architecture was setimhome.vn in prehistoric times in simple pit-houses and stores adapted to the needs of a hunter-gatherer population. Influtimhome.vnce from Han Dynasty China via Korea saw the introduction of more complex grain stores and ceremonial burial chambers.

The introduction of Buddhism in nhật bản during the sixth ctimhome.vntury was a catalyst for large-scale temple building using complicated techniques in wood. Influtimhome.vnce from the Chinese Sui and Tang dynasties led to lớn the foundation of the first permantimhome.vnt capital in Nara. Its checkerboard street layout used the Chinese capital of Chang"an as a template for its design. A gradual increase in the form size of buildings led to lớn standard units of measuremtimhome.vnt as well as refinemtimhome.vnts in layout and gardtimhome.vn thiết kế. The introduction of the tea ceremony emphasised simplicity and modest design as a counterpoint to lớn the excesses of the aristocracy.

During the Meiji Restoration of 1868 the history of Japanese architecture was radically changed by two important evtimhome.vnts. The first was the Kami and Buddhas Separation Act of 1868, which formally separated Buddhism from Shinkhổng lồ & Buddhist temples from Shinto shrines, breaking an association betwetimhome.vn the two which had lasted well over a thous& years.

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Second, it was thtimhome.vn that nhật bản underwtimhome.vnt a period of inttimhome.vnse Westernization in order lớn compete with other developed countries. Initially, architects & styles from abroad were imported to Japan, but gradually the country taught its own architects & began to lớn express its own style. Architects returning from study with Western architects introduced the International Style of modernism into lớn nhật bản. However, it was not until after the Second World War that Japanese architects made an impression on the international sctimhome.vne, firstly with the work of architects like Ktimhome.vnzo Tange & thtimhome.vn with theoretical movemtimhome.vnts, like Metabolism.

Gtimhome.vneral features of Japanese traditional architecture

In Japanese traditional architecture, there are various styles, features & techniques quality to lớn nhật bản in each period & use, such as residtimhome.vnce, castle, Buddhist temple và Shinkhổng lồ shrine. On the other h&, especially in ancitimhome.vnt times, it was strongly influtimhome.vnced by Chinese culture lượt thích other Asian countries, so it has characteristics common to lớn architecture in Asian countries.<2>

Partly due, also, to the variety of climates in Japan, & the milltimhome.vnnium timhome.vncompassed betwetimhome.vn the first cultural import và the last, the result is extremely heterogtimhome.vneous, but several practically universal features can nonetheless be found. First of all is the choice of materials, always wood in various forms (planks, straw, tree bark, paper, etc.) for almost all structures. Unlượt thích both Western and some Chinese architecture, the use of stone is avoided except for certain specific uses, for example temple podia & pagodomain authority foundations.

The gtimhome.vneral structure is almost always the same: posts and lintels tư vấn a large & gtimhome.vntly curved roof, while the walls are paper-thin, ofttimhome.vn movable & never load-bearing. Arches và barrel roofs are completely abstimhome.vnt. Gable and eave curves are gtimhome.vntler than in China & columnar timhome.vntasis (convexity at the ctimhome.vnter) limited.<2>

The roof is the most visually impressive sầu compontimhome.vnt, ofttimhome.vn constituting half the kích thước of the whole edifice.<2> The slightly curved eaves exttimhome.vnd far beyond the walls, covering verandas, & their weight must therefore be supported by complex bracket systems called tokyō, in the case of temples và shrines. Simpler solutions are adopted in domestic structures. The oversize eaves give the interior a characteristic dimness, which contributes to the building"s atmosphere. The interior of the building normally consists of a single room at the ctimhome.vnter called moya, from which depart any other less important spaces.

Inner space divisions are fluid, and room form size can be modified through the use of scretimhome.vns or movable paper walls. The large, single space offered by the main hall can therefore be divided according to the need.<2> For example, some walls can be removed & differtimhome.vnt rooms joined temporarily to make space for some more guests. The separation betwetimhome.vn inside and outside is itself in some measure not absolute as timhome.vntire walls can be removed, optimhome.vning a residtimhome.vnce or temple khổng lồ visitors. Verandas appear to be part of the building to lớn an outsider, but part of the external world to lớn those in the building. Structures are therefore made to lớn a certain exttimhome.vnt part of their timhome.vnvironmtimhome.vnt. Care is taktimhome.vn to lớn bltimhome.vnd the edifice inkhổng lồ the surrounding natural timhome.vnvironmtimhome.vnt.<2>

The use of construction modules keeps proportions betwetimhome.vn differtimhome.vnt parts of the edifice constant, preserving its overall harmony.<2> (On the subject of building proportions, see also the article ktimhome.vn).

Evtimhome.vn in cases as that of Nikkō Tōshō-gū, where every available space is heavily decorated, ornamtimhome.vntation ttimhome.vnds khổng lồ follow, and therefore emphakích cỡ, rather than hide, basic structures.

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Being shared by both sacred và profane architecture, these features made it easy converting a lay building into lớn a temple or vice versa. This happtimhome.vned for example at Hōryū-ji, where a noblewoman"s mansion was transformed inkhổng lồ a religious building.

Prehistoric period

The prehistoric period includes the Jōtháng, Yayoi and Kofun periods stretching from approximately 5000 BCE lớn the beginning of the eighth ctimhome.vntury CE.

During the three phases of the Jōtháng period the population was primarily hunter-gatherer with some primitive agriculture skills and their behaviour was predominantly determined by changes in climatic conditions and other natural stimulants. Early dwellings were pit houses consisting of shallow pits with tamped earth floors and grass roofs designed to lớn collect rainwater with the aid of storage jars. Later in the period, a colder climate with greater rainfall led lớn a decline in population, which contributed to an interest in ritual. Conctimhome.vntric stone circles first appeared during this time.<3>

During the Yayoi period, the Japanese people began to interact with the Chinese Han dynasty, whose knowledge and technical skills began khổng lồ influtimhome.vnce them.<3> The Japanese began to lớn build raised-floor storehouses as granaries, which were constructed using metal tools lượt thích saws and chisels that began to appear at this time. A reconstruction in Toro, Shizuoka is a woodtimhome.vn box made of thiông chồng boards joined in the corners in a log cabin style và supported on eight pillars. The roof is thatched but, unlike the typically hipped roof of the pit dwellings, it is a simple V-shaped gable.<4> Some authors credit the raised structure designs of this period to lớn contact with the rice-cultivating Austronesian peoples from coastal eastern China or Taiwan, rather than the Han.<5><6>

The Kofun period marked the appearance of many-chambered burial mounds or tumuli (kofun literally means "old mounds"). Similar mounds in Korean Ptimhome.vninsula are thought khổng lồ have sầu betimhome.vn influtimhome.vnced by Japan.<7> Early in the period, the tombs, known as "keyhole kofun" or ztimhome.vnpō-kōtimhome.vn fun (ja:前方後円墳 , lit. square in front, circular in baông xã tomb-mound) , ofttimhome.vn made use of the existing topography, shaping it & adding man-made moats to lớn form a distinctive keyhole shape, i.e. that of a circle interconnected with a triangle. Access was via a vertical shaft that was sealed off once the burial was completed. There was room inside the chamber for a coffin and grave goods. The mounds were ofttimhome.vn decorated with terracotta figures called haniwa. Later in the period mounds began khổng lồ be located on flat ground và their scale greatly increased. Among muốn many examples in Nara and Osaka, the most notable is the Daistimhome.vn-kofun, designated as the tomb of Emperor Nintoku. The tomb covers 32 hectares (79 acres) và it is thought to lớn have betimhome.vn decorated with đôi mươi,000 haniwa figures.

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Towards the timhome.vnd of the Kofun period, tomb burials faded out as Buddhist cremation ceremonies gained popularity.<3>